POLITICAL SYSTEM OF ISLAM UNDER THE PROPHET (SAWW) AND THE PIOUS CALIPHATE NATURE OF ISLAMIC STATE AND FORM OF GOVERNMENT


Supremacy of the Quran and the Sunnah:

The Holy Quran enjoins upon the believers to obey Allah and His messenger. 

  • It says: "And obey Allah and the messenger, in the hope that you be shown mercy."

(Al-Imran:132)

  • These are the limits [set by] Allah, and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens [in Paradise] under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment. (Al-Nisa: 13-14)
    Reign of Prophet Muhammad PBUH


  • And it becometh not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided an affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, he verily goeth astray in error manifest.

(33:Al-Ahzab:36)

The abovementioned injunctions of the Quran establish beyond any doubt that in an Islamic system supremacy of the Law of Allah and of the Prophet (SAWW) is ensured. This means that the legislature has no right to make laws, the executive has no right to issue orders and the law courts have no right to decide cases in contravention of the teachings of the Quran

and the sunnah.

Power for the Righteous:


According to Islamic conception, power or authority is a great trust or responsibility. It is a great trial for those who are entrusted with it. The Quran says:

  • "And it is He Who has made you generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth. And He has raised you in ranks, some above others that He may try you in that which He has

bestowed on you......."

(Surah Anam:165)

Now the question arises as to who is eligible for exercising power and authority to rule. As is a trust, it should be given to the trustworthy. It is the pious and righteous people, and not the wicked and arrogant, who can be entrusted with power. Thus, power and authority in an Islamic dispensation belongs to the righteous, Allah-fearing and competent people.

The Quran in the following verses clearly establishes this principle that only the pious have the right to rule:

  • "And We have already written in the book [of Psalms] after the [previous] mention that the land lof (Al-Anbiya:105) Paradise] is inherited by My righteous servants."
    Reign of Prophet Muhammad PBUH

Concept of a Nation:

Concept of nationhood or nationality in Islam is based upon religion. A common religion is the basis of nationality among the Muslims and Islam is that religion. 

  • The Quran says: "And tinas we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a

witness over you.........." (2:143). 

At another place, the Holy Quran calls the Muslims the best community of the world that has been raised for the guidance of mankind. 

  • It says: "You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah. If only the People of the Scripture had believed, it would have been better for them. Among them are believers, but most of them are defiantly disobedient." (3:110)

Among the other people, basis of nationality is blood or race, language, colour, or place of birth. These notions provide a very weak basis as they make the problem of assimilation of foreigners very difficult rather impossible. For example, if society were to group itself solely on the basis of blood relationship, naturalization would be out of question for ever. The same would be true if the basis were the colour of the skin which cannot be concealed. Language as a factor of social unity requires long years for a veritable assimilation. Place of birth is even less perceptible in a stranger; and ever since man has crossed the horizon of city-states, not much importance is

attached to this factor.

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