Fourth Caliph of Islam Hazrat Ali (R.A.)|Reign of Hazrat Ali(R.A.)

 Name and Parentage

HAZRAT ALI (R.A.) (656-661 A.D.):

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was born some thirty years after the birth of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). He belonged to the most respectable family of Quraysh, the Banu Hashim (i.e. Hashmites). His father Abu Talib was the real uncle of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) who brought him up after the death of the Holy Prophet's (SAWW) grandfather. Hazrat Ali's (R.A.) mother was Fatimah bint Asad (R.A.), who belonged to Banu Hashim. Hazrat Ali's (R.A.) patronymic name was "Abul Hasan". The Holy Prophet (SAWW) gave him another name, "Abu Turab" which was most liked by Hazrat Ali (R.A.).

Pious Caliph of Islam

First youth to accept Islam:

The Holy Prophet (SAWW) loved him very much. The night when the Holy Prophet (SAWW) was migrating to Madinah, his house was surrounded by the bloodthirsty tribesmen, who had plotted to assassinate him. They were ready to kill any person who came out of the house. In such a situation, the Holy Prophet (SAWW) asked Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to sleep in his bed.

Although the Makkans did not accept his mission, they considered the Holy Prophet (SAWW) the most trustworthy man of Makkah and continued keeping their trusts (cash and gold etc.) with him. It was Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to whom the Holy Prophet (SAWW) gave the deposits to return to the owners, when he was leaving Makkah for Madinah. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) migrated to Madinah after returning the deposits.

Life in Madinah:

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was very close to the Holy Prophet (SAWW), and the closeness was changed to a permanent relationship when he married his most beloved daughter, Hazrat Fatimah (R.A.) to Hazrat Ali (R.A.).

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) also had the distinguished honour that the progeny of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) continued through Hazrat Ali's (R.A.) sons from Fatimah (R.A.), namely Hazrat Hasan (R.A.) and Hazrat Husain (R.A.). The two children were the most beloved of the Holy Prophet (SAWW).

When the Holy Prophet (SAWW) went to the expedition of Tabuk in 9 AH he left Hazrat Ali (R.A.) in charge of Madinah.

Pious Caliph of Islam

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) the great scholar of Islam:

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was not only a great warrior but a great scholar as well. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi we Salaam) said about him, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate." He was one of the great jurists among the Companions. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) appointed him as the gadi (judge) of Yemen during his life-time. He was a master of Arabic and his writings were as effective as his speech.

Hazrat Ali (R.A.) as the fourth Khalifah:

The insurgents' shameful act of assassination of the khalifah could never have been imagined by Hazrat Ali (R.A.) or any other eminent companion at Madinah. It came as a total surprise to Hazrat Ali (R.A.) whose two sons, Hasan (R.A.) and Hussain (R.A.) were guarding the gate of Hazrat Usman's (R.A.) residence. The insurgents after climbing the back wall of the residence had assassinated the khalifah. The assassination of Hazrat Usman (R.A.) was really due to creation of faction among the Muslim community which was the goal of 'Abdullah bin Saba and his followers (the insurgents), and they achieved it.

On 21st Dhul-Hijjah 35 A.H. pledge of loyalty took place at the hands of Hazrat Ali (R.A.). Hazrat Talha and Zubair (R.A.) did not want to take a pledge (bai'at) until the case of Hazrat Usman (R.A.) assassination was decided. However, under the threats of insurgents they took the pledge of loyalty at Hazrat Ali's (R.A.)hands

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