Shura of consultative body and it's role

1: Institution of consultation:

Foundation of Islamic political system which is governance by consultation.The institution of consultation is so important in the body politics of Islam that one of the chapters of the Holy Quran,has been named "Shura"Following verses of the Quran and tradition of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) provide sanction for this institution:
And those who respond to their lord and keep up prayer .and their rule is to take counsel among themselves, and who spend out of what we have given them.(Surah Ash Shurah:38) Hazrat Ali (R.A.) reported that the messager of ALLAH (Peace be upon Him said:"The man who gives her s counsel to his brother knowing well that it is not right does most surely betray his trust .(Abu daud quoted in concept of the Islamic state by Encyclopedia of Seerah').

It is reported on the authority of Ali bin Abu Talib (R.A)that when the Messenger of Allah was asked to explain the implications or f the word azm which accurs in verse 159 of Al -Imran referred to above ,he said:"It means taking counsel with knowledgeable people and ,thereupon, following them therein."(Ibn Kathir qouted by Muhammad Asad )
Consulting Shura of Islam

2: Practice of Hazrat MUHAMMAD (Peace be upon Him)and other righteous Caliph:

Acting upon the command of Allah contained in verse 159 of chapter 3 of Holy Quran,The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) always consulted His companions on all important issues regarding which He(Peace be upon Him)did not receive any guidance through revelation.
For example on the battle of Badr The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) selected a certain place of His army which was not suitable in the in the view of His (Peace be upon Him) companions.When He (Peace be upon Him)asked whether His (Peace be upon Him) decision was according to His revelation or according to His (Peace be upon Him) opinion.Then He (Peace be upon Him)was advised by the experienced persons like Al-Hubab Ibn Mundhir to change His( Peace be upon Him) decision in favor of a more  suitable place which The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) readily did.
On the occasion of battle of Uhad ,The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) wanted to defend the attack of the Quraish while staying in Madinah for the battle which was fought at Uhad.
In the battle of Ahzab, The Prophet Muhammad)Peace be upon Him) accepted the advice of Hazrat Salman (R.A.) the Persian and defended Madinah with the Help of a trench which was dug around the city .
Importance of Shura in Islam

These are few examples of of the consultation of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)with His(Peace be upon Him) companions.
He(Peace be upon Him)used to hold such consultative deliberation with His(Peace be upon Him) and tribal chiefs or representatives not only on the issues of war and peace but also on other socio-economic issue of importance arising before the government.
The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)did not nominate His(Peace be upon Him) successor.After His (Peace be upon Him) demise in 632A.D., the Companions elected their senior and most pious colleague,Abu Bakar (R.A.),as Caliph .
Election took place in an open place with the mutual consultation and was confirmed with general bai'at (allegiance)of the Muslim community.
Three other righteous Caliph,
  • Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)
  • Hazrat Usman (R.A.)
  • Hazrat Ali (R.A.)
Were also elected by the people with mutual consultation although each time the election was held in a different way.
During the reign of the pious Caliphs, the institution of consultation was gradually formalized and the concept of standing advisory council emerged .
The Caliph used to consult his advisory council on every important issue confronting the Islamic state.
It is unfortunate that after the death in f Hazrat Ali (R.A.) the fourth and the last righteous Caliph,the republic was transformed into absolute monarchy and institution of consultation also lost its importance.

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