Second Caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)|Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq R.A.)part6

 1:Jizya(Indemnity or Defense tax):

Some western writers have objected to realization of Indemnity tax(Jizya)from the non-Muslims of the state.But this tax was taken from their safety against any invasion from outside. There are instances that when Muslims left a conquered place due to some reasons,they returned the jizya taken from the non-Muslims of that place .
In many agreements signed by Muslims during the wars,it was clarified that jizya would be paid to the state by the non-Muslims for their protection and in case the state .(i.e.Muslim government)took any help from them for their protection they would not have to pay the jizya.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

Following agreement was signed with the inhabitants of Jarjan:
"It consisted s our responsibility to protect you and your property against any invasion and you would pay annual tax(jizya)in lieu thereof .If we seek your help for protecting you,we would not charge any tax(jizya)."
In the agreement signed at Adharbijan ,the tax was as under :
"Jizya would not be taken from those who serve in the army ,for the year of services ."

2: Construction of Masjids and Establishment of schools:

Hazrat Umar Farooq (R A.) founded a number of schools Masjids were used for giving religious instruction .A number of Masjids were built by Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)He(R A)asked the governors of various provinces, especially of Syria to build at least one Masjid in each city or town.According to some historians He (R.A.)built four thousands Masjids .
The Haram (Masjid-ul Haram)in Makkah was too small for the increasing Muslim population.He (R.A.)extended it and build a wall around it in order to separate it from the township.
He covered the Ka'abah with very costly Egyptian cloth instead of ordinary cloth.The Masjid of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)was also extended.
He bought all the houses and properties surrounding the Masjid besides the house of widows of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him),and extended the Masjid.
A big platform was constructed in the yard of the Masjid to impart Islamic knowledge.

3: Introduction of Islamic calendar:

For the first time in the history of Islam, Islamic calendar was introduced in the present form by Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.).The date of start of this calendar was fixed as the date of the "Hijrah"(migration) of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).Thus the calendar is also  known as the Hijrah calendar.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

4: Regular Army:

One of the biggest achievements of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)was to keep regular armies of the state.He (R.A.) encouraged the Muslims to join the regular forces whenever the need arose .
For the first time in the history of Islam all irregular armies or mercenaries were divided into clear -cut classes of regular and irregular armies.The army personnel was well paid and their families also get allowances.
Separate registers for regular and irregular armies were maintained .
Cantonments were built for soldiers where they lived in accordance with Islamic practices.
These cantonments turned into centers of Islamic culture and knowledge,this became the Muslim quarters to preserve Islamic culture and practice.
Central cantonments were built in the following places:Madinah,Kufa,Basrah,Mosul, Fustat, Damascus,Hims(i.e.Hems),Jordan, Palestine (Jerusalem),and Ramla.

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