Second Caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)|Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)Part5

 1: police department and institution of prisons:

To keep order inside the state ,a police force was necessary. Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)was the first Muslim Head of state Who established the police department.The police force at that time was known as ahdath  and the police officer as the sahib-ul-Ahdath.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

 Hazrat Abu Huraira (R.A.)was appointed as the sahib-ul-Ahdath for Bahrain.When he was going to take charge of His duty , Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)gave Him the following instructions:
"Keep peace in the area .Let not the people contravene the law.They should not measure or weigh incorrectly.
Nobody should build any house on roads so as to hinder the passage.No one should overload an animal.Mo body is allowed to sell or buy liquor."
There was no jail in Arabia before Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.).He bought five houses in Makkah and used them as prisons.
He also setup jails in some districts of various provinces.The punishment of exile for the first time introduced by Hazrat Umar (R.A.)He (R A.) exiled Abu Mihjan Thaqafi to an island as punishment for drinking liquor.

2:The bait-ul-Mal and Revenue Administration:

A public Treasury (Bait -ul-Mal)was for the first time established by The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)in the form of a common fund for the benefit of a general public.
During the time of Hazrat Abu Bakar As-Siddique (R.A.)a house was purchased for the purpose but there was no savings beside one dirham when He (R.A.)passed away. 
During the Caliphate of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.) the bait-ul-Mal was immensely enlarged.
He recognized the entire system of a very sound and just basis .
The officer in charge of the public Treasury (Bait -ul-Mal)was known as Sahib-i-Bait -ul-Mal.In Madinah,there was the central Treasury and regular accounts were kept.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

3: Source of revenue:

  1. Jizya (Indemnity or Defense tax )
  2. Zakat(poor tax)
  3. Khiraj (Land tax)
  4. Usher (Special Land Tax)
  5. Booty (Income from the conquered places)
  6. Tax on  non-Muslim merchants or traders 
The tax on non-Muslim traders was introduced by Hazrat Umar (R.A.) from r the first time.Tye reason was obvious they didn't pay Zakat while Muslim Merchants had to pay Zakat.
Usher,10%tax on the harvests of irrigated land was taken.
The Zakat fund was kept in special account books and was spent in accordance with the Islamic laws as given in the Holy Quran.
From the rest of the fund , expenditure on general administration and warfare was met .The surplus was distributed among Muslims.

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