Second Caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar Farooq(R.A.)(634-644A.D.)

1:Background:


Hazrat Umar (R.A.) belonged to "Adi"family of Quraish tribe.In the generation,His lineage joined with the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).Abu Hafs was His patronymic name and "Al-Farooq"His title given by The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).He was born in 583 A.D., about 40 years before the Great Hijrah.In His youth,He was a famous wrestler and orater,and a spirited person.He was one among the few people in Makkah who knew reading and writing before Islam .His main occupation was business.
When the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)got revelation and invited people to Islam, Hazrat Umar (R.A.)became the sworn enemy of Islam.
Reign of Hazrat Umar (R.A.)

2:Umar's Acceptance of Islam:

It was the sixth year of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)mission when Quraish leaders called a meeting and asked a volunteer for the assassination of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) Hazrat Umar (R.A.) offered himself for this job and everybody in the meeting exclaimed that He was the right person for it.While He was on his way with a sword in his hand he met Sa'ad bin Abi Waqas who inquired of him about his destination.
Umar told him that he was going to murder The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).After some discussion Sa'ad said,"You had better take care of your family first.Your sister and brother-in-law both have accepted Islam."Hearing this Umar changed his direction and went straight to his sister's house.When Umar knocked at the door,his sister Fatimah (R.A.)was frightened on hearing Umar's voice and tried to hide the portion of the Holy Quran She was reciting.
When Umar entered the house he inquired about their Islam and on finding that they had accepted Islam,he first fell upon his brother -in -law and beat him severely.When his sister intervened he smote her so violently on her face that it bled profusely.On this his sister burst out:
"Do whatever you like,we are determined to die as Muslims."When Umar saw his sister bleeding,he cooled down and felt ashamed .He loved Fatimah(R.A.)very much but could not tolerate her conversion to Islam.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

However,deeply moved ,Umar asked her to show the pages  on which the Holy Quran written.But she was ,after all, Umar's sister and told him straight,"you can not touch it unless you take a bath and make yourself clean."He washed his body and then read the leaves .That was the beginning of Surah Ta Ha .When he came to the verse:
"Lo!I even I ,am ALLAH ,there is no god save Me.So serve me and establish Salat for my remembrance ."
Umar exclaimed, Surely this is the word of ALLAH .Take me to Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).On hearing this Hazrat Khabab (R.A.),who had hidden himself in the house,came out from inside and said,"Umar!Glad tidings for you.It seems that the prayers of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)which he said last night as been answered in your favour.He had pray to ALLAH:
"O ALLAH, strengthen Islam with either Umar b.khattab or Umar b.Hisham whomsoever thou pleaseth."
Hazrat Umar (R.A.)then went to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).On seeing him,The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) asked him,what brings you here?"He said,"I am here to accept Islam ."As a matter of fact, Hazrat Umar (R.A.) conversion to Islam was a terrible blow to the morale of the disbelievers.Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud(R A.),a great companion ,says,"Umar conversion to Islam was a great triumph,his emigration to Madinah a tremendous reinforcement and his accession to Caliphate a great blessing for the Muslims."

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