Expansion of Muslim empire during the reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

 1:Fall of Persian Empire:

During the time of Hazrat Abu Bakar As-Siddique (R.A.) Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (R.A.) conquered part of Persian Empire, known as the kingdom of Hira.Then,He was ordered by Hazrat Abu Bakar As-Siddique (R.A.) to join the expedition to Syria.
At the time of his departure,He(R.A.) appointed Muthanna bin Harith as the commander of the Islamic army.The Persian be ame furious at the lose of the kingdom of Hira and the emperor sent a large army under the command of a very famous general, Rustam, the commander in -chief of Persian armies.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

In view of the growing pressure of Persians, Muthanna requested Hazrat Umar Farooq (R A.)for reignforcenent.At the time there was a large gathering of Muslims in Madinah to take pledge of loyalty (bai'at)at the hand of the new Caliph (Hazrat Umar).
He put the matter before the Muslims but did not get any response in the beginning.Then Hazrat Umar (R.A.)in His sermons stressed the importance of Jihad and a large number of Muslims volunteered to help Muthanna against the Persians. 
Abu'Ubaid ath-Thaqafi was appointed as a commander of the Islamic army comprising 5,000 men.In the meantime, Persians attacked the places conquered by the Muslims and they lost some of them.

2: The battle of Namariq :

When Abu' Ubaid(R.A.)had reached there a battle took place at 'Namariq' and the Muslims won it.A number of famous  general administration of of Persian army , including Jaban,  Right hand of Rustam,were killed in the battle Then,some small battles also took place at Kaskar,etc.

3: The battle of the Bridge:

The defeat of Persians startled Rustam and he gathered a huge army to face the Muslims.The army met the Muslims on the other bank  of the Euphrates under the command of Bahman,a famous Persian warrior.
Bahman asked Hazrat Abu Ubaid (R.A.) whether Persians should cross the river or the Muslims.Hazrat Abu Ubaid (R.A.)chose to cross the river.although some of the Muslim generals like Muthanna did not like to cross the river,and preferred to let the Persians come.
The Islamic army crossed the river but lost the battle . Hazrat Ubaid (R.A.)was also martyred and Muslims fell one after the other. Muthanna took over the command and ordered rebuilding of the bridge which had been destroyed .
The elephants of the Persian army caused considerable damage to the Muslim army . However, However Muthanna could save only 3000 men out of an army of 9000.
Reign of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A.)

4: The battle of Buwaib:

Hazrat Umar Farooq (R A.)was socked at the defeat of the Muslim army .Ye sent special messengers to various tribes and exhorted the Muslims to prepare for the holy war against Persians.A new reign forcemeat was sent to Muthanna 's army .
The Persians also gathered a huge army.This time Rustam , the commander in -chief of the Persian armies, appointed Mehran Hamdani as the commander because he had travelled Arabia and knew the Arabian way of fighting.
The Muslim army under the command of Muthanna,met the Persians at the place called Buwaib (Kufa is situated).The Muslims invited the Persians to cross the river and they accepted it.The number of Muslim army was a little more than 20,000 while the Persians (Iranians) several times larger in number ,were estimated 2,00,000.
A fierce battle took place . Muslims fought desperately and after a grim fight , the Persians were defeated.They could not find the way to cross the river Euphrates because the bridge built by them was destroyed by the Muslims.
There was a total disorder the Persian army.
The commander of the army ,Mehran was slain in this army and not less than a hundred thousand men lost their lives in the field. As a result of this victory ,the whole of western part of Persian Empire (now Iraq)fell into Muslim hands.

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