Prophet Muhammad (SAW)as a POLITICAL LEADER /HEAD OF THE STATE

 During the Hijra,contrary to the situation in Makkah,the political aspect of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW),was visible through HIS practice.His political leadership along with his religious guidance , established the relationships between the newly formed Muslim society and other groups grew in importance.After Hijra,The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)not only established peace in Madina but also established political system which was not in Makkah and other places and when people who accepted Islam came to Madina to join Him .

Political leadership of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) became undisputed with subsequent developments when most of the tribes in Arabia accepted Islam.Thus, a wide political unity was developed under His ruling.

1.Leadership Skills:


The political structure in the Arabian peninsula changed within a quarter century with the developments under the leadership of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW).Arabs ,most of whom had been living as nomadic and semi-nomadic scattered tribes ,for the first time gathered together and became a nation thanks to The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) who had  struggled heavily against the dominant religion, social concepts and institutions also tried to form a new moral and social order in a society rotting in terms of these concepts.He (SAW) eliminated tribal animosities, social injustice,and inequalities, putting an end to the superiority concept which is believed to exist by birth.HE(SAW) removed artificial obstacles that separate individuals I a society.HE(SAW) founded a society based on fellowship, cooperation and effection.HE (SAW) preventing the killing of girls and misbehaviour towards women .HE (SAW) raised the status of women who were living under an oppressive obedience rule to a level that they shared life with men and they had mutual rights and responsibilities.HE(SAW)took the steps to gradually abolish slavery .

2. Provincial government:


Different role of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)

As the entire Arabia came under the rule of Islam in the 10th year of Hijrah and the region around  Madina became the provinces of the Islamic States ,the Prophet  Muhammad (SAW) assigned people to administer the provinces.His evaluation of the people assigned by Him was through merit and personal ability.The  Prophet Muhammad (SAW)did not hesitate to recall those who were. Incompetent and to assign those more more skilled.HE (SAW)never assigned a person whom He (SAW)believed  was well informed and skilled in other issues but who would not overcome this task .In administration,the values of faith were more essential than tribal superiority, nobility,wealth and class.Thus, everyone was given equal opportunity to achieve according to their personal capacity.Hence,it is seen that The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) assigned only competent believers .

3.Consultation:

One of the indispensable actions HE (SAW) employed in administration was the act of consultation.He (SAW) consulted with leading believers and took their opinions on the issues of significance.He(SAW)would enact a decision formed by these consultations even if contrary to His own opinion. Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)was sensitive in removing obstacles between the administrators and those administrated.The following Ahdith point to the implementations of Prophet Muhammad (SAW)related to these issues "whoever undertake a task for the people and lays out obstacles between Himself and the weak,ALLAH will no doubt form obstacles for him."(Ahmed b.Hanbal,al-Musnad,c V,p.239)"Whoever undertake a task for Muslims and closes his doors to those who are weak,needy and subject to injustice,ALLAH will close His doors of grace against his need"(Ahmed b.Hanbal ,al-Musnad,c .III,s.441,480)

4.Foreign Relations:

Following the arrival of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)in Madina the Arabic tribes accepted Islam.The Jew were the only tribe that did not accept Islam . Prophet Muhammad (SAW)showed that He had no prejudice against them,by announcing in His Charter of Madina that Jews had equal civil status.However ,after some time it was understood that the Jews did not wish to abandon their idea of being a superior race,and were fearful that they would assimilate into a mixed society where they were ruled by The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).Even though the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)did not aim to convert them to Islam and only searched for common agreement ground and an opportunity for a peaceful cooperation ,Jews did not provide a solid d image of agreement.They became an opposition group in according accordance with the conjuncture of the battle against the Quraish.An atmosphere of insecurity resulting from such a growing negative attitude led The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)to change His opinion against them.
Jews were eventually displaced from the region,not because of  religious motives,but because they caused political, social and economic disruption.

5.Establish peace:

Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)acted mildly and generously towards the leaders of other societies and religions and showed respect for them in order to establish peaceful relations and maintain peace.This attitude of Him was part of His foreign policy.Scholars interrupted the following Hadith "When ahead of a tribe comes to you,treat them well."(Ibn e Maja,"Adab ".19)and stayed that there is no criterion such as religion on this issue and that Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)treated the pagan leaders with modesty and showed high respect for their office.

6.Economic Issues:

Prophet Muhammad(SAW) not only formulated principles of social justice but also implemented them.The huge gap between the poor and the rich decreased with economic measures .A balanced and equal environment was formed in harmony harmony with human nature.the poor began to  wish the rich goodness,and the rich began to protect the poor .The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)first determined a marketplace in Madina for Muslims apart from the marketplace where mushrik (infidels) and Jews by and sell.He (SAW) ordered that market place would not be constricted with no reserved vending spaces.Furthermore ,no taxes would be imposed.In this way, Muslims could easily practice Islamic rules in mutual relations and do business in a separate place without the financial authority of mushrik and particularly Jews . Absence of taxes,the costs were reduced made this marketplace profitable and attractive.The prohibition against reserved vending spaces was important in providing justice among entrepreneurs , omission of privileges, and encourage industriousness.Prophet Muhammad (SAW)stated that suppliers gained earnings and black marketers were cursed.He(SAW)were also tried to ensure the continuity of supply the goods to Madinah by prohibiting domestic customs taxes that were taken during shipment.

7.Source of revenue:

When the Islamic lands were expanded and earnings increased,The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) appointed officials to collect taxes like Zakat (alm giving),jizya ,ghums,ushr.He (SAW) appointed special clerks to record the taxes.He(SAW) ordered that officials would not pressure people when collecting Zakat and they would not perform unfair implementations on them.

8.Domestic affairs:

As head of state,The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)was aware of the meaning of human resource development, continuing what has He taught His Companions in Makkah and Madinah.Prophet MUHAMMAD (SAW) continues to conduct training in line with the revelation.Prophet Muhammad (SAW)built mosques serve as center of community development.The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)made arrangements in accordance with the guidance of ALLAH .

9.Law Enforcement:

Islamic laws were enforced on all citizens, of including non-Muslims outside the matter is worship and doctrinal camps .No exceptions and dispensations were given.

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