Treaty of Hudibiyah (6A.H.)

 Treaty of Hudibiyah was concluded in the sixth year of Hijrah .While the Muslims in general did not comprehend the implications of this apparently humiliating treaty,The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) had foreseen its great benefits and the soundness of His strategy .

The Jews exiled for treason and revolt had established themselves in Khyber,Taima and Wadi ul Qura and Madinah was now wedge in between these two hostile fronts which had marshalled a vast force against Madinah in the battle of the Ditch.Now the problem facing the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), before settling scores with the Quraish which had become inevitable ,was tha if He (SAW) marched towards Makkah, the Jews of Khyber and Bani Ghaftan would attack Madinah ,if HE(SAW)turned towards Khyber,the Quraish might do the same from the opposite side.

Yet the later course alone was left for The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)to curb and contain the hostile elements and then to make a final assault on the enemy strong hold of Makkah. Besides, the time was ripe The leadership of the Quraish was in confusion and their fighting strength was crushed in three battles Badr ,Uhad and the Ditch,in hich hey have lost their top warriors,while their economy was badly shattered and most of their Jewish adherent were subdued. Although they were making a show of strength yet they had lost their power of resistance,while around Madinah were clans which were supporters of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)whose tactics measures had further strengthened them.

The Muslims had been refused for the last six years and they longed to return home . 

Simultaneously,they wanted to establish their right of reviving mission of Abraham (A.S)which they had taken upon themselves and to pray in the House of ALLAH ALMIGHTY built by Him.So they restlessly looked forward to the opportunity of entering the Ka,abah.Then it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)in a dream to go for Hajj and He(SAW)began immediate preparations to perform Hajj.Fourteen hundred people voluntarily accompanied Him.HE(SAW) appointed Nomaila Ibn Abdullah Laisi as His deputy to look after the administration in Madinah , leaving with him and adequate number of Muslims to guard the city .HE(SAW)also took with him 70 Camels for sacrifice and marched towards Makkah unarmed.

Treaty of Hudibiyah

1.Trouble  for Quraish:

The Quraish now faced a trouble,for if they attacked The Prophet Muhammad's (SAW)party they would be violating the sanctity of the sacred month, especially when The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)has declared His peaceful attentions and was unarmed and the presence of sacrificial animals with the party further confirmed the peaceful nature of the march.And if they made no resistance,it would be said that they became afraid of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) strength and had given Him way due to this fear and at this crucial time,their chief Abu Sufyan was under t of  Makkah on tour .
The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)foresight had given Him assurance that the Quraish had no other alternative than to come to terms . Nevertheless,they began preparations for war and collected their allied clans together with a force of Ahabish clans and immediately peace moves were set on foot.the first step was the chief of Khuza'a clan ,Budail Bin Warqa ,who came to with his companions. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) explained to him his objective which was not hostile while the Quraish who were militant would be themselves at loss on case of battle .This,there could be no harm if a temporary peace pact was concluded.On his return, Budail explained to the Quraish that hasty action was not wise and the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)Who was coming with peaceful intentions should not be resisted.The people of Makkah listened to him and set the leader of Ahabish,Hulais Bin Alqama ,to negotiate with The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)and when the Hulais saw the herd of sacrificial animals moving about he was much impressed and on his return frankly told the Quraish that it was not proper to resist those who were coming on Pilgrimage And wished to withdrawn his clan.He was,how ever , satisfied by assurance that they had no intentions to fight but only wanted favourable terms of peace.
Then the Quraish sent Urwa Bin Masud Saqafi. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) again explained his viewpoint to Urwa who returned so much impressed that he told the Quraish that they could not succeed against The HOLY Prophet Muhammad (SAW)as the devotion and the love of His people for Him m was such as was not found even in the courts of the greatest of monarchs.
Then, Hazrat Usman (R.A),was sent Who was detained by the Quraish and when His return was delayed a rumour spread that He had been killed. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) summoned His men and took a pledge that they would not return without fighting the enemy.When the news reached the Quraish they immediately released Hazrat Usman (R .A),as in fact The Quraish themselves were not prepared to fight.

2.The Peace Pact:

Then the Quraish sent Mikraz bin Hafs but The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) did not talk to him saying that he was a treacherous man.The the Quraish sent  Suhail bin Amr and The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)saw that they were really ready to conclude peace pact and after some negotiations on certain terms Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was asked to write the draft of the treaty but the situation was so tense that passions were roused at every step.

3.Terms of the Pact :

The following terms were settled and written in this momentous document:
  1. There will be ni war between the parties from r ten years and they will leave at peace.
  2. Muslims should return this year and come for r Pilgrimage of the Ka'abah next year keeping their swords sheathed and stay for just three days in Makkah.
  3. Arab tribes will be free to conclude alliances with any of the contracting parties .
  4. Trade caravans of the Quraish passing through the Madinah will not be attacked.
  5. If anyone from the Quraish get es to Madinah without the consent of the party ,he would be returned but a Muslim coming to Makkah from Madinah will not be returned.

4.First crucial test:

While the treaty was not yet signed,Abu Jandal,son of the Quraish representative Suhail,came in chains;he had been badly beaten.Hr appealed to The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)and the Muslims that he should not be returned to Makkah to suffer oppression at the hands of the Non-Muslims.Suhail at once rose and said that he was the first man who had to be returned under the treaty.The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)pleaded that since the treaty had not yet been signed,this man might be exempted but Suhail insisted that there would be no treaty unless Abu Jandal was returned.The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) appealed that for his sake ,he might be allowed to remain.But even this appeal had no effect and The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)had to concede the demand on which Abu Jandal  appealed to the Muslims and said that they were handing him over the non-Muslims.This must have greatly moved the Muslims but The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) conclusively said that having agreed to the treaty,He(SAW) could not against it and so Abu Jandal should have patience and ALLAH ALMIGHTY would find some way out for him.
Treaty and f Hudibiyah

5.Great benefits of the Treaty:

While the Muslims in general did not comprehend the implications of this apparently humiliating treaty, The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)had  foreseen its great benefits and the soundness of His strategy.Some of the immediate benefits which resulted from this treaty were tha tin the first place ,it it opened the  path of amicable contacts between the peoples of Makkah and Madinah.
Traffic was opened between the two cities and men separated for long from their family began to meet freely with one another . Matters were discussed and the mis understanding which the people of Makkah had about The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and the Muslims came forward and were cleared.Muslims answered their questions and explained the spiritual,moral, intellectual and material progress they had made while the call of truth and the Islamic ideology became a subject of conversation in every home.and Islam spread to rapidly that the number of people who joined the ranks of Muslims in the two years following the treaty of Hudibiyah was more than the number who had accepted Islam in the course of the last twenty years preceding it.
Secondly, relieved from the worries of wars, Muslims found time to devote their energies to the constructive work of moral and intellectual reform and strengthening the administration.
Thirdly,the state being at peace with Makkah could attend to the hostile front of Khyber which was subdued very soon after the peace of Hudibiyah.
Fourthly,the Arab clans were now free to enter into  alliance with Makkah or Madinah this brought many new elements in support of Madinah.
And lastly,only a year later Muslims could enter Makkah without any fear.Thus, to conclude such a peace which brought such bitter enemies as the Quraish on the path of Amity was the wisest stroke of The Holy Prophet's Muhammad (SAW) policy.
Just after conclusion of this treaty,while The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)was on His way to Madinah Surah Fatah was revealed which reviewed past events,gave its prophesy of future victories and applied solace to their tense feelings. 

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