The battle of Uhad

 The victory of Badr alerted Islam against all the hostile forces in Arabia.The Muslims were in a state of unease ,and endured the wrath of most of the neighboring societies.The Jewish tribes around Madinah were disinclined to honour the agreements they had concluded with ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)after HIS emigration from Makkah.During the battle of Badr,they were sympathetic with the idolaters rather than with the Muslims.After the Battle of Badr,these tribes openly promoted the Quraish and other Arab tribes to urge them to untie against the Muslims.They also collaborated with the hypocrites,who were apparently an integral part of the Muslim body politic.

Mount Uhad

To serve the same end,that is,to sabotage the spread of Islam,they fanned the the flames of old animosities between Aus and Khazraj,the two tribes of Madanite Muslims.In particular,Ka'ab Ibn Ashraf went to Makkah personally and recited stirring elegies from r the Makkans who had been slain in Badr in order to provoke the Quraish into hostile action against the Muslims.Also,this Ka,ab spoke slanders against the Muslims and satirized ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)In the poems he composed.

Their violation of treaty Obligations exceeded all reasonable limits.A few months after the Battle of Badr a Muslim women was maltreated by some Jews of Banu Qaynqua , the most hostile to the Muslims among the Jewish tribes.In the fighting that followed ,a Muslim was martyred and a Jew was killed .When ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)reproached them for this shameful conduct and asked them to remain faithful to the obligations of the treaty they had concluded with him,they threatened him, saying:'Do not be misled by your encounter with a people who had no knowledge of warfare ,and so you had good luck with them.By God ,if we were to wage wat against to you, you would know that we are the men of war .'

Finally, ALLAH's Messenger (SAW) launched an attack on Banu Qaynqua,and banished them from the outskirts of Madinah.In addition ,upon the order of ALLAH's Messenger (SAW), Muhammad ibn Maslama killed Ka,ab Ibn Ashraf and put an end to his mischief.

The Reasons of the battle:
Mount of Uhad

The Quraish were smoldering from the defeat of Badr.Their women were mourning incessantly over their warriors killed at the battle of Badr and instigating them to wage wat on the Muslims.In addition,the Jewish efforts to arouse their feelings of revenge were like adding fuel to the flames.Within a year,they attacked Madinah again with any army of three thousand.
Informed of Makkahs' marched upon march upon Madinah , ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)took counsel with His companions as to how best to resist the Quraish.Also,He (SAW)knew that the Makkans army was coming with the attention of doing battle in open ground,and if, therefore, they defended themselves from within Madinah,
the Makkans army could not continue a long siege.With this plan,HE(SAW)also stressed once more that the Muslims are,in reality,the representatives of peace and security and therefore,they resort to force only when it is inevitable for them either to eliminate the obstacle put before their preaching of Islam or to defend themselves or their faith and country against any attack.
However,there were several young people who longed for martyrdom and felt aggrieved at not having had the opportunity to fight in the battle of Badr, they were  of the opinion that the enemy should be resisted outside the confined of Madinah.ALLAH,s Messenger (SAW)gave in to the demands of the majority and decided to march out of the city to meet the enemy.

The stage of battle of Uhad:

ALLAH's Messenger (SAW) accompanied by a thousand warriors,left Madinah for Uhad,a hill only a few miles from the western outskirts of Madinah ,with the plain stretching before it.However ,half way to the destination Abdullah Ibn Ubay Ibn Sahul broke a way along with his 300 men.This, happening as it did just before the commencement of the battle,caused such perplexity and confusion that the people of Banu salama and Banu Haritha wanted to turn back,but were persuaded not to.
ALLAH's Messenger (SAW) advanced with remaining 700 Muslims ,much less in number and equipment than their enemies,and line up HIS troops at the foot of mountain in such a manner that the mountain was behind and the Quraish army in front of them.There was only a mountain pass from where the Muslims could be subjected to a surprise attack.ALLAH,s Messenger (SAW) posted 50 archers there as guards under the command of Abdullah Ibn Jubayr, instructing him neither to let anyone approach not to make be away from that spot , adding,"Even you see birds fly off with our flesh,still you must not move away from this place."
The standard of ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)was again in the hands of Hazrat Hamzah Mus,ab Ibn Umair (R .A).Zubair Ibn Awwam (R.A)commanded the cavalry and,Hazrat Hamza(R.A),the infantry.The army was ready to begin the battle.In order to encourage HIS Companions The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) had brought forth a sword and asked"who would like to have this sword in return for giving its due?"Abu Dujana (R.A.)asked ."what is its due?"it is to fight with it untill it is broken ,"The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) answered.Abu Dujana(R.A)took it and was engaged in fighting.Sa,ad Ibn Abi Waqas (R.A)and Abdullah Ibn Jahsh(R.A)prayed to ALLAH to make them encounter the strongest soldiers of the enemy.
In the first stage of battle ,the Muslims defeated the enemy,so easily so that Abu Dujana(R.A)with the sword The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)had given him, advanced as far as the central part of the Quraish army and, encountering Hind ,the wife of Abu Sufyan ,who was the commander of the Quraish army, attempted to kill her but,'in order not to dirty the sword given by The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) with the blood of the woman's,spared her life.Hazrat Ali (R.A) killed Tlha Ibn Abi Talha , the standard -bearer of the enemy.Those who took hold of the standard standard of the Quraish one after the other had all been killed by either Hazrat Ali (R.A)or Asim Ibn Thabit(R.A)or Zubair Ibn Awwam (R .A).After that,the self sacrificing heroes of the Muslim army like Hamza (R.A), Hazrat Ali (R.A),Abu Dujana (R .A) Zubair Ibn' Awwam (R.A)and Miqdad Ibn 'Amr(R.A) thrust themselves into the ranks of the enemy and put them to flight.
When the enemy began to flee the battlefield,the Muslims occupied themselves with the spoils.The archers on the mountain pass saw their brothers collecting booty, and said to themselves.ALLAH has defeated the enemy,and our brothers are collecting the spoils .Let us go and join them.'
'Abdullah Ibn Jubayr (R.A)tried to persuade them not to leave their posts by reminding them of The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) directive ,but they answered:'HE(P.B.U.H)ordered us to do that without knowing that the matter would come to what we now see.'Except a few who remained at their posts,they took part in collecting booty.Khalid Ibn Walid,who was at that time an unbeliever and who commanded the Quraish cavalry,seized this opportunity.He rode with his men around the mount Uhad and attacked the flank of the Muslims army through the pass.'Abdullah Ibn Jubayr 's depleted force tried unsuccessfully to resist the attack.
The fleeing soldiers of the enemy also returned and joined the attack from the front and the scales of the battle turned against the Muslims.The suddenness of these attacks by outnumbering forces ,from both rear and the front, C's sed great confusion among the Muslim ranks.The enemy forces wanted to seize The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)alive or kill Him,and attacked Him from all the sides, striking with the swords, thrusting with spear, shooting arrows and hurling stones.Those who defended HIM fought heroically.
Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan ,had lost her father and brothers in the battle of Badr and urged Wahshi ,a black slave, to kill Hamza(R .A).When the scales of the battle turned against the Muslims,Hamza(R.A) thrust himself into the ranks of enemy like a furious lion.He had killed almost thirty of them when the lance of Wahshi struck him above the thigh and pierced it.Hind came forward and ordered Hamza's(R .A) liver to be split open .She mutilated his body and chewed his liver 
Ibn Kami'a martyred Mus'ab Ibn Umair  (R .A), the standard -bearer of ALLAH,s Messenger (SAW) who had been fighting before him .Mus,ab reassembled ALLAH's Messenger (SAW) in build an complexion.This resemblance led Ibn Kami'a to announce tha the had killed (nauz billah ) ALLAH's Messenger (SAW). Meanwhile, the Messenger (SAW)Himself had been wounded by a blow of sword and stones hurled at Him.HE (SAW)in a pit and,bleeding profusely, stretched His hands and prayed :'O ALLAH !forgive my people, because they do not know the truth.'
The rumour that The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)had been martyred led many companions to lose courage.But,in addition to those like 'Ali (R.A),Abu Dujana (R.A)Sahl Ibn Hunayf(R.A),Talha Ibn Ubaid Allah (R.A),Anas Ibn Badr(R.A)and Abdullah Ibn Jahsh (R.A)who fought self-sacrificingly  ,some Muslim women, having heard the rumour, hastened to the battlefield.Besides Abu Dujana (R.A.)and Sahl Ibn Hunayf (R.A.), Hazrat Ali (R.A)stood in front of ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)and defended HIM during the battle.

The reasons for the Setback at Uhad 

In the first years of Madinan era,the community of the companions consisted of true believers and hypocrites,so ALLAH wanted to sift those who were truly HIS witnesses against all mankind, and also to see who among them strove hard in HIS way and remained steadfast (Al'Imran,3.141-2).The battle of Uhad, therefore,became a decisive test to sift out the sincere and steadfast from the hypocritical and wavering ones,and served to make the Islamic community more stable and formidable than before .
ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)being the Commander -in-Chief of the Muslim army supported by divine revelation,was of the opinion that they should stay within the confines of Madinah,but the younger companions urged Him to March out of the city .This was a mistake,even though for the sake of obtaining the rank of martyrdom in the way of ALLAH ALMIGHTY, since The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)tended to apply different tactics in battles and knew in advance that the Quraish army was coming to fight in an open field .
The second disobedience on the part of the companions showed itself when the archers whom The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)had posted to defend the army against any attack from the rear ,left their posts.They misinterpreted the order of ALLAH's Messenger (SAW) that they should not move away from their places even if they saw birds fly off with the flesh of their brothers fighting on the battlefield,and took part in collecting booty.
The hypocrites numbering 300,one third pillar f the whole army ,cut themselves off from the army half -way and returned to Madinah.This act demoralized Banu Salama and Banu Haritha,who were only persuaded with difficulty not to leave .Moreover ,there was still small group of hypocritical people who demoralized the Muslim ranks during the course of the battle .
There were some among the believers who had thought that as long as ALLAH's Messenger (SAW)was in their midst and as long as they enjoyed ALLAH's support and help,the unbelievers could never triumph over them . However,true this was ,they came to understand by the setback they suffered that deserving ALLAH's help requires, besides belief and devotion, deliberation strategy and steadfastness .They also perceived that the world is a field of testing and trial .
Finally,the following verses are to explain the reasons of that setback together with it's aftermath ,and the lessons which should be taken from it:
"Or do you think that you will enter Paradise while ALLAH has not yet made evident those of you who fight in His cause and made evident those who are steadfast?"
(Surah Al 'Imran :142)"
"Muhammad is not but a Messenger.[Other] Messengers have passed on before Him.Soif He was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]?and he who turns back on his heels will never harm ALLAH at all;but ALLAH will reward the grateful.And it is not [possible]for one to die except by permission of ALLAH st a decree determined.And whoever desires the reward of this world -WE will give him thereof;and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter-WE will give him thereof.And we will reward the grateful."[Surah Al 'Imran 144-5]

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