Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (R.A.)The first Caliphate (632-634A.D.)

 1.Name and parentage of Hazrat Abu Bakar(R.A.):

Hazrat Abu Bakar as Siddique ,(R.A.)was born in 573A.D.at Makkah.Thus,He was two years younger than The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
HE belonged to a respectable and noble family,the Bani Tamim,a branch of Quraish tribe .His name was Abdullah .Abu Bakar was His patronymic name(or kuniyah )which became so famous that most of the people did not know His real name.After His conversion to Islam,He received the title of "As-Siddique "(the truthful).His father's name was Uthman who was known by His ,Abu Qahafah . How s mother name was Salma but she was also known by her patronymic name,Ummul Khair.

2.Life before Islam :

Since his boyhood, Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)was quiet and sincere person.He was very honest and truthful.Owing to his sterling character.He was the closest friend of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)since his youth and the friendship proved to be life -long.Ue was a soft hearted man and keenly felt other suffering and miseries .He used to help the poor and the needy ,the distressed and the downtrodden.His main profession was trade .He
 also accompanied The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)in some of his trade journeys .

3.First man to accept Islam:
Political aspect of Islam

Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)was a firm friend of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)and knew him better than any other man .His honesty , nobility, truthfulness and trustworthiness had great attraction for Abu Bakar (R A.)When The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) disclosed to him secretly about the revelation of ALLAH ALMIGHTY,Abu Bakr accepted it immediately without having the slightest doubt .In this way,He was the first adult free man to believe in The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) mission and became His confident .The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)once spoke about this ,
"When I invited people towards ALLAH , everybody thought over it and hesitated at least for a while, except Abu Bakar who accepted my call the moment I put it before him,and he did not hesitate even for a moment."

4.Services for the cause of Islam in Makkah:

Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)served Islam in numerous ways.The Quraish cruelly persecuted a number of slaves who had accepted Islam and made life different for them.Muslim slaves were the worst sufferers at the hands of non-muslim masters.Hazrat Bilal (A negro)one of the best known in the galaxy of Companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW),was one among such slaves.His master Umayyad bin Khalf lashed Him at night and made Him on the burning sand during the day because of Bilal's conversion to Islam.

5.Abu Bakar (R.A.)chosen as the first Khalifa:
Political aspects of Islam

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) did not nominate His successor and left the choice of His deputy or viceroy (Khalifah) to His ummah (followers).There were two groups of Muslims in Madinah,viz Muhajireen (the immigrants from Makkah),and Ansar (Helpers ,i.e.Madinah.After the death of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW),Ansar gathered to discuss the appointment of a Khalifah.HazratAbu Bakar (R.A.)and Hazrat Umar (R.A.)with other prominent Muhajireen (Immigrants )were in the Masjid.When they were informed about the gathering of Ansar,Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.) and Hazrat Umar (R.A.) also went there accompanied by a number of eminent Muhajireen lol ike Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah (R.A.)Since Hazrat Ali (R.A.)and Hazrat Zubair (R A.)(two prominent figures among Muhajireen)were not present at the spot ,they could not go to the gathering.
Next day a general pledge of loyalty (bai'at)was taken by the Muslims in the Masjid of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).This, Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.) assumed the greatest office and became the first Khalifa of Islam.He(R A.)gave His first address as a khalifa in the Masjid after the general bai'at."
"I ask you obey as long as I obey ALLAH and HIS MESSENGER (SAW).If I disobey ALLAH and HIS MESSENGER (SAW)you are free to disobey me .Now come and offer Salat."
In His short address, Hazrat Abu Bakar (R .A.)showed the role of an exemplary Khalifah of Islamic government.No doubt, Islamic government means :
"Government of ALLAH and HIS MESSENGER (SAW),by His obedient servants for the benefits of the people in this world and in the Hereafter."
About 33,000 people took pledge of loyalty (bai'at)at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)in the Masjid.The selection of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R A.)is a pointer towards Islamic democracy and furnishes example for the selection of a leader for Ummat -i-Muslimah (Muslim community till the day of Judgement.

6.Problems faced by Hazrat Abu Bakar As-Siddique (R.A.)as a Caliph:

After the death of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW), the Arabs were on all sides rising rebellion.Apostasy and disaffection raised their heads .Christians and Jews were filled with unrest . Muslim tribes refused to pay Zakat to the Caliph for "Bait ul Mal"(the Public Treasury).Some disbelievers declared themselves to be Prophets.There were many problems and much confusion.Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)faced all these were the unparalleled courage and highest degree of Iman (faith) which is the a characteristic of a"Siddique'.
According to the Holy Quran,
"All those who obey ALLAH and The Prophet are in the company of those upon whom ALLAH has shown favours- of the Prophet, "Siddiqin".
(The Sincere),"Shuhada"(The Martyrs ),and "Salihin "(The Righteous Muslims):Ah!what a beautiful company."(4:69).
Hazrat Zaid bin Harith (R.A.)was martyred at the hands of Syrians (Romans) at Mautah in 8 A.H.A few weeks before His death The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) appointed Hazrat Usama (the son of Zaid to lead an expedition against Syrians in order to avenge the death I his father ,Zaid When Hazrat Usama was about to leave , the news of the demise of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)and the departure of the army was postponed.
After being chosen as Caliph ,the first task before Abu Bakar (R.A.)was to send out this expedition.As a matter of fact,it was the most critical time in the history of Islam.The entire peninsula was in a state state of unrest and disorder.Some of the new converts thought Islam would come to an end with The Holy Prophet Muhammad 's(SAW) life .Many of the tribes had entered the folds of Islam only a short time before and were not firm in Islam.At the same time news came that apostates under the command of some false Prophet were planning to invade the Hazrat Abu Bakar (R A.)was really facing a difficult situation.In these circumstances,the companions approached him to withdraw the expedition of Hazrat Usama bin Zaid(R.A.).In their opinion it was unwise to send troops out of Madinah because they were needed at home.
At last the army lead by Hazrat Usama (R.A.)left after three weeks of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)death .Hazrat Umar (R .A )was also included in the army.After forty days Hazrat Usama (R A ) returned to Madinah with a great victory,the victory of Hazrat Abu Bakar's(R A.)firm faith.

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