Conquest of Makkah in 630A.D.(8A.H.)

 When Islam was well-established in the hearts of the Muslims, Allah decided that the time had come for HIM S Messenger (SAW) and His community to enter into Makkah .They would purify the Ka,bah so that it would be a blessed place of guidance for the whole world.They would restore Makkah to its previous status and the sacred city would offer security for all people once again.

1.A broken treaty:

In the peace treaty of Hudibiyah,it was laid down that anyone who wanted to enter into o treaty and alliances with the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY should be able to do so;and anyone who wanted to enter into a treaty and alliances with the Quraish should also be allowed to do so.The Banu Bakr entered into an alliances with the Quraish while the Banu Kuza'ah entered into one with the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY.
Long standing hostility existed between the Banu Kuza'ah.The coming of Islam had put a barrier between the people as they had become engrossed in it's affairs.This Treaty enabled the Banu Bakr to settle an old score against the Banu Khuza'ah.One night,the Banu Bakr attacked the Banu Khuza'ah when they were camped by spring and killed some of their men.A skirmish developed and the Quraish helped the Banu Bakr by providing weapons.
Some Quraish leaders also fought with the Banu Bakr secretly by night,and the Khuza'ah were driven  into the Haram.Some of the Quraish said,'we have entered the Haram.Mind your gods!'Other replied thoughtlessly ,'there is no god today ,men of Banu Bakr .Take your revenge!you may never have another chance!'
Fatah Makkah

2.Seeking help:

Amr Ibn Salim al-Khuza'i went to the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY in Madinah and asked for help, saying that the Quraish had violated the agreement.His tribe had been attacked at night,he maintained ,and men had been killed in ruku and Sajdah,while performing prayers.
The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY assured him,'you will be helped,Amr Ibn Salim !HE(SAW)then sent a men to Makkah to get confirmation of the attack to offer the Quraish the chance to redress their offence Their reply was impulsive and they ignored the likely consequences.

3.Abu Sufyan Fails:

Abu Sufyan went to the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY, but he did not receive any favourable answer .Then,he went to the Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)and asked Him to speak to Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY for him but He (R.A.)refused Abu Sufyan be ame confused about what to do.

4.Making preparations for war:

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW)asked the Muslims to start preparing for an expedition but He(WAW)asked asked them to keep it a secret Later,He(SAW)was announced that He(SAW) was going to Makkah and ordered them to get ready .
He (SAW)said,"O ALLAH!Impede the informers of the Quraish so that we can 
take Makkah by surprise,"UE (SAW)left Madinah with 10,000men in Ramadan8A.H.and advanced as far as Marr az-Zahran where they set up camp.ALLAH ALMIGHTY concealed this information from the Quraish,so they waited in uncertainty.

5.A pardoning:

On the way,The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) happened to meet His cousin,Abu Sufyan Ibn al-Harith Ibn Abdul Mutlib.He (SAW) ignored him because He(SAW) had suffered insults and precautions from Abu Sufyan.The cousin complained to Ali(R.A.) that he has been ignored.Hazrat Ali (R.A.) say d to him,'Go to the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY and say to Him what the brother said to Yusuf,"By Allah ,ALLAH had preferred you to us and we were indeed sinful"(12:91).
Abu Sufyan did as'Hazrat Ali (R.A.) advised and The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY replied ,"Have no fear this day . ALLAH PAK will forgive you.HE is the Most MERCIFUL of the merciful."
Abu Sufyan accepted Islam and was known for his piety.He did not raise his head ever again in front of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) because he felt so ashamed of his past behavior.

6.Abu Sufyan accept Islam:

The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY was commanding the army and He(SAW) ordered to be lit.Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb,who was spying out the ground for the Quraish,said:"I have never seen so many fires or such an army."
Al -Abbas ibn Abdul Mutlib had already left Makkah with his wife and children as a Muslim Muhajir and had joined the Muslim army .He recognized Abu Sufyan 's voice and called to him,"See, Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY is here with his army.What a terrible morning the Quraish will have !"
He made Abu Sufyan ride on the back of his mule,fearing that if a Muslim saw him,he would kill him.Al-Abbas took him to The Holy Prophet MUHAMMAD (SAW)WHO said ,"woe to you,Abu Sufyan!has not the time come for you to acknowledge that there is no god but ALLAH,"
Abu Sufyan replied,"how kind and gentle You are!By Allah,I think that if there had been another god besides ALLAH,he would have helped me today,"
"Woe to you Abu Sufyan!it and s not time that you recognize that I am Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH!"
Abu Sufyan replied,"May My father and my mother be Your ransom!How kind and generous You are!but by ALLAH, I still have some doubt as to that ."
Al-Abbas intervened,"Work to you ,Abu Sufyan! Become a Muslim and testify that there is no god but ALLAH,and that Muhammad (SAW)is the Messenger of ALLAH before you lose your head ."Then,Abu Sufyan recited the articles of faith and became a Muslim.

7.The Amnesty:

The Messenger (SAW) of ALLAH ALMIGHTY was generous in granting amnesty to everyone so that no one in Makkah need to be killed that morning.Only those who courted danger ran any risk of losing their life.He declared ,"Whoever entered the house of Abu Sufyan is safe .Whoever locks his door is safe .Whoever enters in Ka,bah is safe."The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY told his army not to use arms against anyone when they entered Makkah unless they met opposition or resistance.He (SAW)directed the army not to touch property or possessions belonging to the people of Makkah and nothing should be destroyed .
Fatah Makkah

8.A humble victory:

On the morning of Friday,20 Ramadan,8A.H.,The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) entered Makkah with His head bowed .When He(SAW) realized the honour of conquest, ALLAH ALMIGHTY had bestowed upon him,He (SAW) felt so humble before Allah that His chin almost touched the back of His camel .He (SAW)was reciting Sura Al-Fatah as He (SAW)rode into Makkah in victory .He (SAW)raised the standard of justice, equality, and humility.Behind Him rode Usama Ibn Zayd , the son of his freed slave rather than any son of the Banu Hashim or of the Quraish leaders,even though they were present.
One man, trembling with awe on the day of conquest,was old ,"Be at ease .Do not be afraid.I am not a king .I am only the son of the women of the Quraish who used to eat meat dried in the Sun"

9.Mercy not slaughter:

When Sa'ad Ibn Ubadah in the squadron of the Ansar passed by the Abu Sufyan,he called out,"Today is a day of slaughter.Today there is no more sanctuary.Tday ALLAH ALMIGHTY had humbled the Quraish."
When The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY squadron came near Abu Sufyan,he complained,"Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY,did You not hear what what Sa'ad said ?"
"What was that ?"said The Messenger (SAW) of ALLAH ALMIGHTY,and Abu Sufyan repeated what Sa'ad had called out .
The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY disliked Sa'ad comments and replied,"Today is a day of mercy and forgiveness,"He(SAW)then sent for Sa'ad ,took the standard form him and gave it to his son Qays.Thus meant that the standard did not really leave Sa'ad because it only went to his son.But Abu Sufyan was satisfied and Sa'ad was not too upset.

10.Purifying the Haram:

The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY got down from His camel when every thing had calmed down.HE(SAW)went to the Ka'abah first and performed Tawaf .Around the Ka'abah were 360 idols .With a stick,HE(SAW)was crying,HE(SAW)push them over ,saying "The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away . Falsehood is ever vanishing.(17:81)"The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again."(34:49).
He is collapsed one by one , falling onto their faces . Pictures and statues were found in the Ka'abah and The Messenger (SAW) of ALLAH ALMIGHTY ordered that they should be destroyed.

11.A Day of Piety :

Having performed Tawaf ,The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY called Usman  ibn Talha who had the key of Ka'abah.Tue doors were unlocked and HE(SAW)went in.
When The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY came out of the Ka'abah,Hazrat Ali Ibn Abi Talib stood up holding the key of Ka'abah in his hand .He said to  The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY "Grant us the guardianship of the Ka'bah along with providing water for Pilgrims.'The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY asked ,
"Where is Usman Ibn Talha ?"
Usman was summoned and The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY said to him,"Here is your key ,Usman .Today is a day of piety and good faith Keep it forever as an inheritance.Only a tyrant would take it from you."

12.Slam: Tawheed and unity:

The Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY opened the door of Ka'abah.The Quraish were waiting in a row to see what He(SAW) would do. Holding the door frame ,He(SAW)said,
There is no god but ALLAH alone .HE has no partner .He has made good HIS promise He has helped His Servant and HE alone has put all allies to Flight .Every claim of privilege, property or bloodline are abolished by Me today except for the custody of the Ka'abah and providing water for the pilgrims.
O people of Quraish! ALLAH has abolished the Haughtiness of the jahiliyyah and its veneration of ancestors.People all spring from Adam (A .S.)and Adam (A.S)came from dust."
Then,He(SAW) recited this verse,"O mankind!We have created you from one male and female,and appointed you in races and tribes ,that you may know one another.Surely,the noblest amongst you in the sight of ALLAH is the most God-fearing of you. ALLAH is All-knowing,All-Aware ."(49:,13)

 13.Removing all Vestiges of idol worship:

The Messenger (SAW)sent groups of His companions to destroy the idols standing round the Ka'abah .All of the idols were broken including al-lat ,al-uzza and manat .He(SAW)sent a carrier to announce in Makkah,"Whoever believes in ALLAH and the last day should destroy any superiority idol in his house ."He also sent representatives to the surrounding tribes telling them to destroy their idols.Then, The Messenger (SAW) assembled the Muslims in Makkah and declared that the city would be a sanctuary forever.

14.Outcome of the conquest of Makkah:

The conquest of Makkah had a tremendous impact on the Arabs .It showed that Islam was the Religion of ALLAH ALMIGHTY and paved the way for the whole of Arabia to accept the faith .From far and what de people came to pay their respects to the Messenger (SAW)of ALLAH ALMIGHTY and to accept Islam at His hands ALLAH SAYS :
"When comes the help of ALLAH and victory and You see people entering the Religion of ALLAH in throngs."(Surah Al -Nasr 110:1-2)

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